2008年04月09日

Chapter 3: THE NATURE OF TECHNOLOGY[3-36][3-37]

新年度が始まってしばらく休んでいた翻訳を再開。
今回は3章の最後の部分。
かなり終わりに近づいた感じ。
 
 
Science For All Americans翻訳プロジェクト: Chapter 3: THE NATURE OF TECHNOLOGY


[3-36]
Decisions About the Use of Technology Are Complex
テクノロジーの使用についての決定は、複雑である。

Most technological innovations spread or disappear on the basis of free-market forces--that is, on the basis of how people and companies respond to such innovations. Occasionally, however, the use of some technology becomes an issue subject to public debate and possibly formal regulation. One way in which technology becomes such an issue is when a person, group, or business proposes to test or introduce a new technology--as has been the case with contour plowing, vaccination, genetic engineering, and nuclear power plants. Another way is when a technology already in widespread use is called into question--as, for example, when people are told (by individuals, organizations, or agencies) that it is essential to stop or reduce the use of a particular technology or technological product that has been discovered to have, or that may possibly have, adverse effects. In such instances, the proposed solution may be to ban the burial of toxic wastes in community dumps, or to prohibit the use of leaded gasoline and asbestos insulation.
大部分の技術革新は、自由市場の原理(つまり、人々と社会がその革新にどう反応するか)に基づいて広がるか消えるかする。しかし時には、一部の技術の使用は、国民的議論と場合によっては公的規制の議題となる。技術がそのような問題となる一つの場合は、人、グループ、あるいはビジネスが、新技術をテストするか、導入しようとする時である。等高線式耕作、予防接種、遺伝子工学や原子力発電所の場合に実際にそうなった。もう一つの場合は、すでに広範囲にわたって使用されている技術が異議を唱えられた時である。例えば人々が、副作用を持っている、もしくは持っている可能性があると判明した特定の技術や技術製品の使用を止める、もしくは減らさなければならないと(個人、組織、機関に)言われた時である。このような場合、提案された解決策は、有毒廃棄物の埋め立て禁止や、有鉛ガソリンやアスベスト断熱材の使用禁止かもしれない。

[3-37]
Rarely are technology-related issues simple and one-sided. Relevant technical facts alone, even when known and available (which often they are not), usually do not settle matters entirely in favor of one side or the other. The chances of reaching good personal or collective decisions about technology depend on having information that neither enthusiasts nor skeptics are always ready to volunteer. The long-term interests of society are best served, therefore, by having processes for ensuring that key questions concerning proposals to curtail or introduce technology are raised and that as much relevant knowledge as possible is brought to bear on them. Considering these questions does not ensure that the best decision will always be made, but the failure to raise key questions will almost certainly result in poor decisions. The key questions concerning any proposed new technology should include the following:
技術に関する問題が単純で一方的なものであることは滅多に無い。関連する技術的な事実のみでは、たとえそれらが周知されていて利用可能であっても(大抵の場合そうではない)、一方または他方に賛成することで問題を完全に解決することは出来ない。技術について個人的あるいは集団的な良い決定に到達する可能性は、人々の持つ情報にかかっている。問題に熱心な人と懐疑的な人のどちらもが、必ずしも自発的に準備が出来ているわけではない情報に。従って、社会の長期的な利益は、技術を抑制するか導入するかという提案に関する一番重要な問題が提起され、可能な限りの関連知識が彼らに与えられることを保証する方法を採ることによって最大限にもたらされる。これらの問題について検討することは、必ずしも常に最良の決定がなされることを保証しないが、一番重要な問題を提起することに失敗した場合、ほぼ確実にまずい決定に終わるだろう。提案されたどのような新技術に関する要点となる問題も、以下を含まなくてはならない。

[3-38]

What are alternative ways to accomplish the same ends? What advantages and disadvantages are there to the alternatives? What trade-offs would be necessary between positive and negative side effects of each?
Who are the main beneficiaries? Who will receive few or no benefits? Who will suffer as a result of the proposed new technology? How long will the benefits last? Will the technology have other applications? Whom will they benefit?
What will the proposed new technology cost to build and operate? How does that compare to the cost of alternatives? Will people other than the beneficiaries have to bear the costs? Who should underwrite the development costs of a proposed new technology? How will the costs change over time? What will the social costs be?
What risks are associated with the proposed new technology? What risks are associated with not using it? Who will be in greatest danger? What risk will the technology present to other species of life and to the environment? In the worst possible case, what trouble could it cause? Who would be held responsible? How could the trouble be undone or limited?
What people, materials, tools, knowledge, and know-how will be needed to build, install, and operate the proposed new technology? Are they available? If not, how will they be obtained, and from where? What energy sources will be needed for construction or manufacture, and also for operation? What resources will be needed to maintain, update, and repair the new technology?
What will be done to dispose safely of the new technology's waste materials? As it becomes obsolete or worn out, how will it be replaced? And finally, what will become of the material of which it was made and the people whose jobs depended on it?
[3-39]
Individual citizens may seldom be in a position to ask or demand answers for these questions on a public level, but their knowledge of the relevance and importance of answers increases the attention given to the questions by private enterprise, interest groups, and public officials. Furthermore, individuals may ask the same questions with regard to their own use of technology—for instance, their own use of efficient household appliances, of substances that contribute to pollution, of foods and fabrics. The cumulative effect of individual decisions can have as great an impact on the large-scale use of technology as pressure on public decisions can.

[3-40]
Not all such questions can be answered readily. Most technological decisions have to be made on the basis of incomplete information, and political factors are likely to have as much influence as technical ones, and sometimes more. But scientists, mathematicians, and engineers have a special role in looking as far ahead and as far afield as is practical to estimate benefits, side effects, and risks. They can also assist by designing adequate detection devices and monitoring techniques, and by setting up procedures for the collection and statistical analysis of relevant data.

posted by 黒影 at 22:56| Comment(0) | TrackBack(0) | SFAA翻訳プロジェクト | このブログの読者になる | 更新情報をチェックする
この記事へのコメント
コメントを書く
お名前: [必須入力]

メールアドレス:

ホームページアドレス:

コメント: [必須入力]


この記事へのトラックバック